Authors Desk

Authors Charter

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Guidelines for Authors

Following guidelines are adapted from International standards for authors to support all those involved in scholarly publishing with a summary of best practice guidance.

  • The research being reported should have been conducted in an ethical and responsible manner and should comply with all relevant legislation.
  • Researchers should present their results clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation.
  • Researchers should strive to describe their methods clearly and unambiguously so that their findings can be confirmed by others.
  • Researchers should adhere to publication requirements that submitted work is original, is not plagiarised, and has not been published elsewhere.
  • Authors should take collective responsibility for submitted and published work.
  • The authorship of research publications should accurately reflect individuals’ contributions to the work and its reporting.
  • Funding sources and relevant conflicts of interest should be disclosed.

Refer Submission Instructions tab for detailed instructions for preparing the manuscript.

Submission Instructions

Authors are encouraged to follow below guidelines in preparing manuscript because it helps authors to describe the study in enough detail for it to be evaluated by editors, reviewers, readers, and other researchers evaluating the medical literature. Our instructions are based on Manuscript preparation instructions issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors.

We will consider manuscripts of any length; There are no restrictions on word count, number of figures, or amount of supporting information. We encourage you to present and discuss your findings concisely. we also encourage the submission of both substantial full-length bodies of work and shorter manuscripts that report novel findings that might be based on a more limited range of experiments.

Manuscripts to be submitted should be organized as following sections. Click on each section or refer below for detailed instructions.

Cover Letter

Along with the manuscript a mandatory cover letter needs to be submitted.

The cover letter should:

  • Consent confirming the approval by all the co-authors to submit the manuscript.
  • Consent confirming that the manuscript has not been published or is under consideration for publication by any other journal.
  • If the manuscript is being submitted as part of a special issue, then the special issue title needs to be mentioned in the cover letter along with the manuscript title.
  • Declaration of any potential conflict of interest.

Title Page

A separate title page should be submitted as the first page of the manuscript file and it should include below details.

  • Title

    The title of the manuscript should be concise, accurate, and informative.

    As titles are often used by search engines and other information retrieval systems, the title must reflect the content of your article and it should contain words that readers might be searching for.

    Avoid abbreviations, formulae, and numbers where possible.

    Also provide a short title, which will appear at the top of the PDF upon publication, if accepted.

  • Authors & Affiliations

    All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. All author names should be listed in the following order:

    First names (or initials, if used),)

    Middle names (or initials, if used), and

    Last names (surname, family name)

    Each author on the list must have an affiliation. The affiliation includes department, university, or organizational affiliation and its location, including city, state/province (if applicable), and country.

  • Corresponding Author

    One author should be designated (with an asterisk) as the corresponding author, and his or her contact address, contact phone number, email and fax number should be included on the manuscript cover page.


  • The abstract should be between 100-300 words. It should provide the context or background for the study and should state the study’s purpose, basic procedures (selection of study participants, settings, measurements, analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical and clinical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions.
  • It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations, note important limitations, and not overinterpret findings.
  • Because abstracts are the only substantive portion of the article indexed in many electronic databases, and the only portion many readers read, authors need to ensure that they accurately reflect the content of the article.
  • Please do not include citations in your abstract and avoid the use of abbreviations, if possible and must be self-contained.
  • An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.


Three to six words which explain the research briefly and have direct connection with the script can be used as keywords. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


The introduction should set the tone of the paper by providing a clear statement of the study, the relevant literature on the study subject, and the proposed approach or solution. The introduction should be general enough to attract a reader’s attention from a broad range of scientific disciplines.

Methods & Materials

This section should provide enough details to allow suitably skilled investigators to fully replicate your study. It should include the design of the study, the setting, the type of participants or materials involved, a clear description of all interventions and comparisons, and the type of analysis used, including a power calculation, if appropriate. Only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be referenced.

The following are some special points:

  • For studies involving human participants or animal subjects, a statement detailing ethical approval and consent should be included.
  • Studies using cell lines must state the origin of the cell lines used.
  • If the study characterizes the activity of new compounds, the compound’s structures must be provided.
  • Papers with data that should be deposited in a publicly available database should specify where the data have been deposited and provide the relevant accession numbers and version numbers, if appropriate.
  • Details including clinical trial registration number must be provided in the methods section if research includes studies conducted on human volunteers or patients.
  • Guidelines for animal studies should be provided.
  • Methods used for statistical analyses should be described.


Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and figures, giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or figures in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Extra or supplementary materials and technical details can be placed in an appendix where they will be accessible but will not interrupt the flow of the text.

Give numeric results not only as derivatives (For example %) but also as the absolute numbers from which the derivatives were calculated and specify the statistical methods used to analyse them.

Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid non–technical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomizing device), “normal”, “significant”, “correlations”, and “sample”.


For experimental studies, it is useful to begin the discussion by briefly summarizing the main findings, then explore possible mechanisms or explanations for these findings, compare and contrast the results with other relevant studies, state the limitations of the study, and explore the implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.

Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them.

Link the conclusions with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not adequately supported by the data. Avoid claiming priority and alluding to work that has not been completed. State new hypotheses when warranted, but clearly label them as such.

Do not repeat in detail data or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section.


All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.

Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.

Increasingly, authorship of multicenter trials is attributed to a group. All members of the group who are named as authors should fully meet the below criteria for authorship/contributorship.

The order of authorship on the byline should be a joint decision of the co-authors. Authors should be prepared to explain the order in which authors are listed.

Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.

Authorship credit should be based on:

  • Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
  • Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
  • Final approval of the version to be published; and
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript. These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship/contributorship defined above, and editors will ask these individuals to complete journal-specific author and conflict-of-interest disclosure forms. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. The NLM indexes the group name and the names of individuals the group has identified as being directly responsible for the manuscript; it also lists the names of collaborators if they are listed in Acknowledgments.

The group should jointly make decisions about contributors/authors before submitting the manuscript for publication. The corresponding author/guarantor should be prepared to explain the presence and order of these individuals. It is not the role of editors to make authorship/contributorship decisions or to arbitrate conflicts related to authorship.

Changes to authorship : Research Open World does not permit the changing/adding/deleting of authors after submission of the paper.

Contributors Listed in Acknowledgments

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chairperson who provided only general support.

  • Authors should declare whether they had assistance with study design, data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation. If such assistance was available, the authors should disclose the identity of the individuals who provided this assistance and the entity that supported it in the published article.
  • Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.
  • Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed under such headings as “clinical investigators” or “participating investigators,” and their function or contribution should be described—for example, “served as scientific advisors,” “critically reviewed the study proposal,” “collected data,” or “provided and cared for study patients.” Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, these persons must give written permission to be acknowledged.


Those who contributed to the work but do not meet our authorship criteria should be listed in the Acknowledgments with a description of the contribution.

Authors are responsible for ensuring that anyone named in the Acknowledgments agrees to be named.


Authors are responsible for the accuracy of cited references and these should be checked before the manuscript is submitted.

Citing in the text

  • References must be numbered sequentially as they appear in the text. References cited in figures or tables (or in their legends and footnotes) should be numbered according to the place in the text where that table or figure is first cited. Reference numbers in the text should be inserted immediately after punctuation (with no word spacing)—for example,[6] not [6].
  • Where more than one reference is cited, these should be separated by a comma, for example,[1, 4, 39]. For sequences of consecutive numbers, give the first and last number of the sequence separated by a hyphen, for example,[22-25]. References provided in this format are translated during the production process to superscript type, and act as hyperlinks from the text to the quoted references in electronic forms of the article.
  • Please note that if references are not cited in order the manuscript may be returned for amendment before it is passed on to the Editor for review.

Preparing the reference list

  • References must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
  • Only papers published or in press should be included in the reference list. Personal communications or unpublished data must be cited in parentheses in the text with the name(s) of the source(s) and the year. Authors should request permission from the source to cite unpublished data.
  • List the names and initials of all authors if there are 4 or fewer; otherwise list the first 4 and add ‘et al.’
  • Use one space only between words up to the year and then no spaces.
  • The journal title should be in italic.

Example references

  • Journal article
    Devaraju P, Gulati R, Antony PT, Mithun CB, et al. Susceptibility to SLE in South Indian Tamils may be influenced by genetic selection pressure on TLR2 and TLR9 genes. Mol Immunol. 2014 Nov 22. DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.11.005
  • Book
    Howland J. Preventing Automobile Injury: New Findings From Evaluative Research. Dover, MA: Auburn House Publishing Company 1988:163–96.
  • Abstract/supplement
    Roxburgh J, Cooke RA, Deverall P, et al. Haemodynamic function of the carbomedics bileaflet prosthesis [abstract]. Br Heart J 1995;73(Suppl 2):P37.
  • Web sites or online articles
    Huynen MMTE, Martens P, Hilderlink HBM. The health impacts of globalisation: a conceptual framework. Global Health. 2005;1: 14. Available:

Supporting Information

Authors can submit essential supporting files and multimedia files along with their manuscripts. All supporting information will be subject to peer review.

Authors may use almost any description as the item name for a supporting information file as long as it contains an “S” and number.

For example,

  • S1 Appendix
  • S2 Appendix
  • S1 Table
  • S2 Table
  • S1 Figure
  • S1 Video

Supporting information files are published exactly as provided, and are not copyedited.


Tables capture information concisely, and display it efficiently; they also provide information at any desired level of detail and precision.
Including data in tables rather than text frequently makes it possible to reduce the length of the text.

  • Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a title for each.
  • Titles in tables should be short but self-explanatory, containing information that allows readers to understand the table’s content without having to go back to the text. Be sure that each table is cited in the text.
  • Give each column a short or an abbreviated heading. Authors should place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain all nonstandard abbreviations in footnotes, and use symbols to explain information if needed. You can use alphabets or following characters *, †, ‡, § as symbols.
  • Identify statistical measures of variations, such as standard deviation and standard error of the mean.
  • If you use data from another published or unpublished source, obtain permission and acknowledge that source fully.

Additional tables containing backup data too extensive to publish in print may be appropriate for publication in the electronic version of the journal, deposited with an archival service, or made available to readers directly by the authors. An appropriate statement should be added to the text to inform readers that this additional information is available and where it is located. Submit such tables for consideration with the paper so that they will be available to the peer reviewers.

Illustrations (Figures)

  • Figures should be either professionally drawn and photographed, or submitted as photographic-quality digital prints. In addition to requiring a version of the figures suitable for printing, some journals now ask authors for electronic files of figures in a format (for example, JPEG or GIF) that will produce high-quality images in the Web version of the journal; authors should review the images of such files on a computer screen before submitting them to be sure they meet their own quality standards.
  • For x-ray films, scans, and other diagnostic images, as well as pictures of pathology specimens or photomicrographs, send sharp, glossy, black-and-white or color photographic prints, usually 127 x 173 mm (5 x 7 inches). Although some journals redraw figures, many do not. Letters, numbers, and symbols on figures should therefore be clear and consistent throughout, and large enough to remain legible when the figure is reduced for publication. Figures should be made as self-explanatory as possible, since many will be used directly in slide presentations. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends–not on the illustrations themselves.
  • Photomicrographs should have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photomicrographs should contrast with the background.
  • Photographs of potentially identifiable people must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph.
  • Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been cited in the text. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the figure. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher except for documents in the public domain.
  • For illustrations in colour, ascertain whether the journal requires colour negatives, positive transparencies, or colour prints. Accompanying drawings marked to indicate the region to be reproduced might be useful to the editor. Some journals publish illustrations in colour only if the author pays the additional cost.

Legends for Illustrations (Figures)

Type or print out legends for illustrations using double spacing, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

Units of Measurement

Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples.

Temperatures should be in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be in millimeters of mercury, unless other units are specifically required by the journal.

Journals vary in the units they use for reporting hematologic, clinical chemistry, and other measurements. Authors must consult the Information for Authors of the particular journal and should report laboratory information in both local and International System of Units (SI).

Editors may request that authors add alternative or non-SI units, since SI units are not universally used. Drug concentrations may be reported in either SI or mass units, but the alternative should be provided in parentheses where appropriate.

Abbreviations and Symbols

Use only standard abbreviations; use of nonstandard abbreviations can be confusing to readers. Avoid abbreviations in the title of the manuscript. The spelled-out abbreviation followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis should be used on first mention unless the abbreviation is a standard unit of measurement.

Competing interests

Competing interests may be financial or non-financial. A competing interest exists when the authors’ interpretation of data or presentation of information may be influenced by their personal or financial relationship with other people or organizations.

All submitted manuscripts must include a ‘competing interests’ section at the end of the manuscript listing all competing interests. Where authors have no competing interests, the statement should read “The author(s) declare(s) that they have no competing interests”.

Funding information

All sources of funding should be declared under the heading “Funding information” at the end of the manuscript file. Authors must describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication. If the funder(s) had no such involvement, this should be stated.

Publication Ethics

The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of the work of the authors and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing: the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer, the publisher and the society of society-owned or sponsored journals. Research Open World supports the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). We follows its Best Practice Guidelines and abide by its Code of Conduct.

Copyright and License

  • Copyright on any open access article in a journal published by Research Open World is retained by the author(s).
  • Authors grant Research Open World a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.
  • Authors also grant any third party the right to use the article freely as long as its integrity is maintained and its original authors, citation details and publisher are identified.
  • The Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 formalizes these and other terms and conditions of publishing articles.
  • In accordance with our Open Data policy, the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Public Domain Dedication waiver applies to all published data in Research Open World open access articles.

Peer Review Process

All research articles published in Research Open World undergo thorough peer review. Peer-review is the system used to assess the quality of a manuscript before it is published. Independent researchers in the relevant research area assess submitted manuscripts for originality, validity and significance to help editors determine whether the manuscript should be published in their journal.

Research Open World operates a single-blind peer-review system, where the reviewers are aware of the names and affiliations of the authors, but the reviewer reports provided to authors are anonymous. Publication of research articles is dependent primarily on their scientific validity and coherence as judged by our expert editors and/or peer reviewers, who will also assess whether the writing is comprehensible and whether the work represents a useful contribution to the field.

Submitted manuscripts will generally be reviewed by two to three experts who will be asked to evaluate whether the manuscript is scientifically sound and coherent, whether it duplicates already published work, and whether or not the manuscript is sufficiently clear for publication. Reviewers will also be asked to indicate how interesting and significant the research is. The Editors will reach a decision based on these reports and, where necessary, they will consult with members of the Editorial Board.


All details about submitted manuscripts are kept confidential and no comments are issued to outside parties or organizations about manuscripts under consideration or if they are rejected. Editors are restricted to making public comments on a published article’s content and their evaluation. Upon accepting an invitation to evaluate a manuscript, reviewers must keep the manuscript and associated data confidential, and not redistribute them without the journal’s permission.

Competing interests

Competing interests may be financial or non-financial. Editors and reviewers are required to declare any competing interests and will be excluded from the peer review process if a competing interest exists.

Article Publication Charges

All articles published in our journals are open access and freely available online, immediately upon publication. This is made possible by an article publication charge (APC) that covers the range of publishing services we provide. This includes provision of online tools for editors and authors, article production and hosting, liaison with abstracting and indexing services, and customer services. The APC, payable when your manuscript is editorially accepted and before publication, is charged to either you, or your funder, institution or employer.

Fee Support

We believe that lack of funds should not be a barrier to Open Access publication. To support, we offer APC waivers to authors from developing and transitional countries. For other countries, article publication charge waivers or discounts are granted on a case-by-case basis to authors with insufficient funds. Authors can request a waiver or discount during the submission process.

Article publication charges are as follows :

Journal Publication Fee (GBP)
Internal Medicine Research – Open Journal £590
Cancer Research – Open Journal £590
Diabetes Research – Open Journal £590
Clinical Research – Open Journal £590

Article Publication Charges

All articles published in our journals are open access and freely available online, immediately upon publication. This is made possible by an article publication charge (APC) that covers the range of publishing services we provide. This includes provision of online tools for editors and authors, article production and hosting, liaison with abstracting and indexing services, and customer services. The APC, payable when your manuscript is editorially accepted and before publication, is charged to either you, or your funder, institution or employer. Article publication charges are as follows :

Journal Publication Fee (GBP)
Internal Medicine Research – Open Journal £590
Cancer Research – Open Journal £590
Diabetes Research – Open Journal £590
Clinical Research – Open Journal £590