Fluorescence molecular imaging/tomography may play an important future role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics. Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence imaging can acquire more measurement information than the continuous wave (CW) counterpart, improving the image quality of fluorescence molecular tomography. Although diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively applied in optical molecular imaging, high-order photon migration models need to be further investigated to match quantitation provided by nuclear imaging. In this paper, a frequency-domain parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SPN approximations, a fast time-resolved tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo fluorescence simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using a convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. The validation results show that high-order SPN can effectively correct the modeling errors of the diffusion equation, especially when the tissues have high absorption characteristics or when high modulation frequency measurements are used. Furthermore, the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy improves the modeling precision and the simulation speed significantly on a realistic digital mouse phantom. This solver is a promising platform for fluorescence molecular tomography using high-order approximations to the radiative transfer equation to Represent Entangled Quantum parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics States approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging to identify several global patterns for anti-HIV-1 cell cycle viral replication enzymes for the efficient discovery of homomultimerized HIV short linear motif-like peptide mimicking lead compound on its functional binding sites.
A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imagingA cursory analysis to identify several global patterns for anti-HIV-1 cell cycle viral replication enzymes for the efficient discovery of homomultimerized HIV short linear motif-like peptide mimicking lead compound on its functional binding sites. Virtual Numbers to Represent Entangled Quantum States.