Article Page

Abstract

Fluorescence molecular imaging/tomography may play an important future role in preclinical research and clinical diagnostics. Time- and frequency-domain fluorescence imaging can acquire more measurement information than the continuous wave (CW) counterpart, improving the image quality of fluorescence molecular tomography. Although diffusion approximation (DA) theory has been extensively applied in optical molecular imaging, high-order photon migration models need to be further investigated to match quantitation provided by nuclear imaging. In this paper, a frequency-domain parallel adaptive finite element solver is developed with simplified spherical harmonics (SPN) approximations. To fully evaluate the performance of the SPN approximations, a fast time-resolved tetrahedron-based Monte Carlo fluorescence simulator suitable for complex heterogeneous geometries is developed using a convolution strategy to realize the simulation of the fluorescence excitation and emission. The validation results show that high-order SPN can effectively correct the modeling errors of the diffusion equation, especially when the tissues have high absorption characteristics or when high modulation frequency measurements are used. Furthermore, the parallel adaptive mesh evolution strategy improves the modeling precision and the simulation speed significantly on a realistic digital mouse phantom. This solver is a promising platform for fluorescence molecular tomography using high-order approximations to the radiative transfer equation. A parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging A surface representation designed IHMVYSK peptide-mimo based chemo-ligand comprising therapeutic vaccine-like agonistic properties as a potential novel druggable synthetic regulator for future allergic and autoimmune treatment applications.Abstract: Allergic and autoimmune diseases are forms of immune hypersensitivity that increasingly cause chronic ill health. Most current therapies treat symptoms rather than addressing underlying immunological mechanisms. The ability to modify antigen-specific pathogenic responses by therapeutic vaccination offers the prospect of targeted therapy resulting in long-term clinical improvement without nonspecific immune suppression. Examples of specific immune modulation can be found in nature and in established forms of immune desensitization. Allergic and autoimmune diseases are forms of immune hypersensitivity that increasingly cause chronic ill health. Most current therapies treat symptoms rather than addressing underlying immunological mechanisms. The ability to modify antigen-specific pathogenic responses by therapeutic vaccination offers the prospect of targeted therapy resulting in long-term clinical improvement without nonspecific immune suppression. Examples of specific immune modulation can be found in nature and in established forms of immune desensitization. Targeting pathogenic T cells using vaccines consisting of synthetic peptides representing T cell epitopes is one such strategy that is currently being evaluated with encouraging results. Future challenges in the development of therapeutic vaccines include selection of appropriate antigens and peptides, optimization of peptide dose and route of administration and identifying strategies to induce bystander suppression. Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given peptide based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other peptide and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Peptidomimetics, deriving from structure-based, combinatorial or protein dissection approaches, can play a key role as hit compounds. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets using a surface representation parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging of IHMVYSK peptide-mimo based chemo-ligands comprising therapeutic vaccine-like agonistic properties as a potential novel druggable synthetic regulator for future allergic and autoimmune treatment applications.

Keywords

parallel adaptive, finite element, simplified spherical harmonics, approximation solver, frequency domain, fluorescence molecular imaging, surface representation, IHMVYSK peptide-mimo, based chemo-ligand, therapeutic vaccine-like, agonistic properties, novel druggable, synthetic regulator, future allergic, autoimmune treatment applications.

Article Type

Research Article – Abstract

Publication history

Received: Sep 20, 2017
Accepted: Sep 25, 2017
Published: Oct 01, 2017

Citation

Grigoriadis Ioannis, Grigoriadis George, Grigoriadis Nikolaos, George Galazios (2017) A surface representation parallel adaptive finite element simplified spherical harmonics approximation solver for frequency domain fluorescence molecular imaging of IHMVYSK peptide-mimo based chemo-ligands comprising therapeutic vaccine-like agonistic properties as a potential novel druggable synthetic regulator for future allergic and autoimmune treatment applications.

Authors Info

Grigoriadis Nikolaos
Department of IT Computer Aided Personalized Myoncotherapy, Cartigenea-Cardiogenea, Neurogenea-Cellgenea, Cordigenea-HyperoligandorolTM,
Biogenea Pharmaceuticals Ltd,
Thessaloniki, Greece;

Grigoriadis Ioannis
Department of Computer Drug Discovery Science, BiogenetoligandorolTM,
Biogenea Pharmaceuticals Ltd,
Thessaloniki, Greece;

Grigoriadis George
Department of Stem Cell Bank and ViroGeneaTM,
Biogenea Pharmaceuticals Ltd,
Thessaloniki, Greece;

George Galazios
Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology,
Democritus University of Thrace,
Komotini, Greece;

E-mail: biogeneadrug@gmail.com

File not available